Why I support Canada’s further involvement in Mali

In the turmoil of the Arab Spring, Gadaffi brutally put down protests, prompting an intervention by the West, backed by the Arab League, first in the form of a no-fly-zone, then dropping guns and training on-masse into the hands of rebels. Gadaffi was overthrown and we washed our hands of it – a successful intervention, one less dictator in the world.

Now, two years later, Mali is in the middle of a civil war, with rebels and Al-Qaeda setting up in the north, and acting much like the Taliban did when seizing power in Afghanistan (summary executions, amputations, destruction of religious/cultural shrines, enforcement of Sharia law). Turns out that dumping guns and bombs causes instability, and now Mali is paying the price. Two years ago Mali was a ‘functional democracy’ and wasn’t on the list (48 strong) of ‘fragile states’. Now it’s a complete mess.

We also know how troublesome failed states are, both in terms of global security and in terms of the development and security of citizens of those states. To me, it feels irresponsible to wash our hands and decline getting involved, and simplistic to say that the situation won’t be resolved until Africans start ‘standing up to imperial powers’. What should Malians do, reject foreign military support and embrace a drawn-out full-fledged civil war?

This is a problem without a good answer. We, as a global community, suck at these kinds of interventions; I think our track-record of intervening and establishing functioning democratic government is about 0. A different kind of approach is needed, but in a case such as this, military intervention seems unavoidable in the short term. Paul Collier’s article in the Financial Times (referenced earlier) argues for ‘nipping [this] in the bud’, while Scott Straus’ and Leif Brottems’ op-ed in the NY Times offers good insights into what is needed to lay the foundation for a successful state in the long-term – namely, a Malian-led drive for the hard work of engaging constituents in building grass-roots democracy. What we do know, but seem completely determined to forget time and time again, is that military intervention without long-term commitment and planning just sets the stage for further instability.

As long as the West, and us as Canadians, are involving ourselves in conflicts abroad (and I support our involvement in a peace-keeper role, as I supported intervention in Libya, for better or worse), we need to be getting involved for the long-term. Mali is a very different situation from Afghanistan, and an intervention right now would prop up the Malian state. This is an opportunity for us to fix some damage that we helped do. We were once known as model peace-keepers internationally. Here is a situation in which we can play a significant role in establishing peace, establishing stability, and supporting the long-term success and viability of the Malian state.

Check out this blog: http://bridgesfrombamako.com/2013/01/16/behind-mali-conflict/

And this article: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/19/opinion/global/looking-ahead-in-mali.html?_r=0

Comments or reactions? Discuss below!

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Social Entrepreneurship and Central Planning

I’ve been working lately on a side project, the Open Project Initiative (check it out and I’d love any comments you have!), which I guess I my first real foray into the field of ‘social entrepreneurship’. It’s had me reflecting on this idea.

A while back I read that was talking about how pricing in a market economy is critical to its success, particularly over a ‘planned’ economy (see footnote 1). The basic idea I took away was that it’s impossible for anyone to know everything, or even CLOSE to everything. Therefore, when you have a system in which individuals are trying to plan in a complex environment (as when a central planner must make decisions on things like production without any feedback mechanisms) they end up making bad decisions – they just don’t (can’t) know enough. When you have prices, however, people don’t NEED to know everything – they only need to know the things that affect their specific context, as indicated by prices, to make good decisions (see footnote 2).

The key thing I want to pull out there is the idea that no one can know everything about the whole ‘system’ – but they can know enough about their specific context to make good decisions. It seems that development partners, and often government itself, is trying to play the role of a central planner in their interventions. They’ll develop an intervention, with a lovely log-frame, and tons of rational thought put into it, and roll this intervention out across the board! All too often, this ends up failing, and so they go back to the drawing boards – what possibly went wrong with their logical model?

The social entrepreneur, however, identifies a clever solution to  a problem in a specific context, and seeks to build that solution into something ‘system-changing’. This is the very idea of social entrepreneurship, and it never assumes perfect knowledge of a system – it doesn’t need to! My guess is that most social entrepreneurs have an idea and run with it, have it fail 10 ways, then finally find a way to make it work. Once it’s working, and often when it’s time to ‘scale’ it, they sit down and try to rigorously identify the ‘magic’. The learning is all around discovering everything within the specific context and around the implementation, rather than trying to understand everything. I feel like the ‘rise’ of social entrepreneurship is the development sector finally moving away from the dream that they can ever do well as ‘central planners’.

One of the hot topics in development is the idea of ‘failure’ – Owen Barder blogs about it here, and there is Admitting Failure specifically to help development partners share their failures. For me this is a great step forward – just as in the market economy, development should expect a lot of failures between the big ‘system changing’ ideas. Failure is a great way to learn about your context, so you can try things again. Let’s abandon the idea of developing ‘perfect solutions’ and instead focus on fostering things that work – and letting the evolution, the creative destruction, of our ideas take place, so we get to things that actually work.

1. I read a while back a book called ‘Marx’s Revenge’ (a super interesting and not at all communist sort of ‘history of economics’) and it introduced me to the idea of ‘information economics’. An economist named Hayek published a paper called “The Use of Knowledge in Society”. An excerpt from Wikipedia: “He asserts that a centrally planned market could never match the efficiency of the open market because any individual knows only a small fraction of all which is known collectively.” Pricing becomes a fantastic way of communicating information through the complex system, that doesn’t require anyone to hold all information.

2. For example, take the classic example of a boot factory: A ‘central planner’ needs to be able to estimate the number of people needing boots that year, how much cloth they’ll need to buy for that, how efficient the factory will, what population growth is, what will be in style…. You see where this is going. Meanwhile, the entrepreneur needs to know how much inputs cost and how much he can sell his boots for, and always have one single thing in mind – profits! (Maybe not the clearest example but I hope it helps small!)

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Quality First

This past week, a colleague Lauren (working with Agriculture Value Chains) and I had the opportunity to present to a group of M&E specialists on some of the work that EWB has been doing. EWB has a few key beliefs about the development sector and why it seems to really struggle to deliver results, and – since articulation always seems to help me think things through – I’ve been reflecting quite a bit on it lately.

After this meeting, Lauren and I sat down and chatted with one of the guys who was heading the M&E side of the project. We were talking a bit about this problem of ‘poor implementation’ – why is it that so often these workshops or development projects are so obviously weak? If these projects fail time and time again, why is it that these implementing partners are continuously hired? Why doesn’t the market, that greatest of evolutionary powers, select NGOs that are really excellent, while the ones that deliver inferior work can eventually be forced out of business? Lauren and I both exclaimed ‘incentives’!

Dave Damberger recently presented a fantastic TED talk on ‘Admitting Failure’, and one of the key take-aways for me was a brief discussion on incentives. He compared the public and private sectors to the development sector, and high-lighted one key different – accountability. If the private sector starts producing something the consumer doesn’t like, it don’t get bought – and that business shuts. Should the public sector start off on a direction that the constituent isn’t in favor of (okay, simplified but bear with me), they’ll get voted out of office (eventually). With development, however, if the beneficiaries aren’t seeing any improvements, or see obvious inefficiencies, then they shrug their shoulders and appreciate what they did get. After all, it’s not costing them anything. Meanwhile, the big donors at the top are sending down money, and the implementers (NGOs, often) in-between are sending rosy reports upwards and inferior products downwards. On the surface, everyone is happy –the implementer is getting paid, the donor is getting reports affirming their money is being spent well, and the eventual beneficiary is some combination of voiceless and happy to get something.

It’s comes down to a matter of incentives. Those private sector guys are working to maximize profits, partly through maximizing sales, which means increasing their customer-base, which means giving people something they want and can’t get elsewhere. The government wants to stay in power, so they’re providing services that people need, and that constituents will attribute to them. Implementing bodies want to secure contracts,  so they have large incentives to report good results, and donors want to demonstrate to their funders back home that they’re doing ‘good work’, so they accept those good results – those photos of new wells, the list of 200 farmers that benefited from a workshop, or the dollars distributed through a micro-credit scheme. Some community member whose borehole breaks down after a year and a half might think about doing something, but really, it’s not his borehole, so why bother? (of course, at this point, it’s NO one’s borehole.)

The incentive structure awards great proposals, nice, easily digestible (but ultimately meaningless) results (such as number of farmers trained), and short-term quick results (which tend, almost by definition, to be unsustainable). Worse, it punishes failure – the implementing partner that says “actually, this really didn’t work. We tried, and for these reasons, it failed” is the guy who doesn’t get hired again. No one wants to throw money at something that isn’t working, after all… and currently, folks are essentially asked to report on themselves.

One of the ways this has really manifested itself is in quality. Over and over again – from education enrollments going up while BECE pass-rates go down to shoddy construction on toilets to terrible community sensitizations around borehole ownership – a crappy product is rolled out, the photo is snapped, and the glowing report filed. The follow-up doesn’t happen, and the measures used to determine success consider what I just detailed a success! That borehole was drilled, that community ‘sensitized’! It’s all ‘output’ indicators oriented around quantity.

It’s like a fish and chips place that you go to because it’s all you can eat for 6 dollars, and you know you got to get your money’s worth – so you eat until you’re ready to burst, your heart hates you for it, and you go home feeling sick. Maybe that’s enough incentive not to go back, especially if your doctor tells you enough is enough. In development, it’s your boss paying those 6 bucks for you, every Thursday at his favorite restaurant, and ordering for both of you, while eating a salad himself, oblivious to the belly-ache and cholesterol he’s piling on you. And you thank him, because you’re worried that if you complain, or – what a concept! – ask for something different, you’ll end up with nothing at all.

I believe development NEEDS to be extremely high quality. Poverty is complex, and the solutions need to embrace that theoretically, and be implemented impeccably. I’m not sure how to get there, but I know that low quality begets low quality – a cycle – and I think that a lack of a demand for excellence is one reason development hasn’t delivered results to the degree people would like. Donors need to start demanding the best, recognizing that this will probably result in higher overheads (more monitoring required) and, from an outputs perspective, probably fewer results. However, without that push for excellence, that (returning briefly to the analogy) push for roasted fish, with a salad, with blue cheese, and maybe some olives in there, and – oh man!! – maybe a little plum chutney on the side, with –sorry, got carried away… without that push for excellence, a demand for nothing but the highest quality, we’ll keep spinning our wheels, digging ourselves deeper and deeper.

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75%

Happy New Years, everyone! I celebrated here in Ghana, with my mum visiting for two weeks. We traveled the country, ate a lot of delicious food, saw some pretty amazing stuff, and read a lot. It was wonderful.

One of the books I read was “Naked Economics”, a titillating title by Charles Wheelan which tries to (and I think does a pretty good job of) presenting key economic concepts, while staying entirely away from math and graphs. It’s an interesting read, and it’s left me with some food for thought and quite an interest in learning more about economics.

At one point, when discussing the idea of wealth vs. money, in discussing ‘economically developed’ countries, he mentions that economists have estimated that 75% of is ‘stored’ in the minds of the people – their skills, ideas, etc. A pretty massive number, representing an amazing investment in people and an incredible richness beyond the ipads and the fancy cars. This is supposedly why Germany and Japan were able to ‘develop’ so quickly after having their infrastructure leveled during the Second World War.

It’s left me wondering what that means for development. Is the wealth disparity even greater than the numbers suggest? What does this mean for how we approach addressing this disparity, if the ‘tangible’ wealth is a minority component?

In promoting the use of evidence in decision-making at District Assemblies, we do some significant capacity development work. We’re not alone in this; every development project has its ‘CD’ component. It’s maybe something of a mantra – no matter anything else, an investment in a person is a sustainable investment, and a successful capacity building program is a successful and sustainable intervention. Unfortunately, CD is also an extremely difficult thing to get right (not to mention quantify). The implementation of these programs isn’t always the best, and they’re rarely coupled with the on-the-job training or more importantly a strong alignment with day-to-day job activities, so all too often these sessions fall flat.

Most of the time these capacity building interventions are just tagged onto bricks-and-mortar projects. A multi-million dollar investment in water infrastructure might be coupled with a 3-day training on project management. And, there’s enough of these projects all with their 3-day training that all too often it seems government workers spend all their time going from one training to another, without the time to actually leverage (and thereby reinforce) the new skills they’re developing.

A huge number of the higher-ranking leaders that I’ve met here in Ghana have trained abroad. They’ve made that substantial investment, often with support from someone or some organization, and are reaping the rewards (in Naked Economics, Charles Wheelan quotes research that estimated an annual return of 6% on an investment in education based on the corresponding increase in income – I suspect the return on investment for educating people from a developing country abroad to be way way higher). Education – quality education that teaches people to think critically – is key to the leadership development they’ve experienced. Patrick Awuah is a co-founder of Ashesi University here in Ghana, which seeks to develop the next generation of African Leaders, in Africa. His TED talk is fantastic – check it out – and really captures the importance of education in fostering critical thought.

Unfortunately, right now I think the education system in Ghana is struggling. With the Millennium Development Goal of universal basic education, enrollment sky-rocketed, so class size went up, pupil-teacher ratios went up, and the number of untrained teachers went up. Quality went down, and test scores went down. In Ghana, the BECE is a test that kids write after finishing Junior High School, and it determines both where they go to high-school (it’s the English system here in Ghana), and if. Last year, that if was a “No” for around 53% of kids. 53% of kids failed the BECE last year. 53% of kids will not go to high-school. I’ve heard (but don’t have a reference) that gross enrollment in high school is falling because of these falling pass rates – the increased enrollment in primary and junior high school through the push for universal education is more than offset by the declining quality, which has resulted in FEWER people going to high school. The challenge extends beyond education. Even in the universities (broad generalization coming), I’ve heard that often the education is by rote, in very large classes, with little emphasis on critical or creative thought.

This is getting a lot of attention right now in the media, by the government, and by civil society. They’re alarming numbers, both in terms of the human cost and lost opportunities, and in terms of that enormous fraction of the country’s wealth stored in their people’s minds.

I don’t have any solutions… If I were in charge (I know you’re listening, Mr. President), I’d start investing more in high quality teachers and increased opportunities for smart high school graduates, within Ghana and abroad. It’s painfully difficult for people to find funding for this, and so it’s not uncommon for people to work for 5 or 10 years after high school saving to go back to university. Education is critical, and hitting that critical mass of educated people is necessary, but how to actually get there?

It seems everyone here in Ghana, at one time or another, ends up ranting about education. It seems to get so little attention, and the attention it does get is either in terms of getting the ‘numbers up’ (universal basic education) or in the form of these short, skills-based sessions. It’s frustrating when you realize how big a component it is to total development – 75% of wealth, for god’s sake! – and yet how we seem to be failing in this sector (Ghana spends a huge portion of its government budget on education, well above average, and yet).

This blog post came out of a walk I took with my friend Mohammed last night. He’s a great guy – very friendly, always smiling, and seriously committed to learning (like so many other Ghanaians I’ve met). He’s currently attending college in town. We have a deal where he teaches me Dagbani and I teach him math. We’ve fallen off the band wagon lately but I’m hoping to pick things up again this week. He’s taking mathematics and biological chemistry. Last time we met we were working through algebra and fractions, while my Dagbani is seriously poor, but I’m keen to start trying hard!

Posted in Challenges, Development, Life in Ghana | Tagged , , , , , , | 6 Comments

Getting the ‘fit’ right for great results

A while back, I was working with a guy, on this thing, and I was totally impressed with him! He had some really critical thoughts, and his points of feedback were really insightful. I left the conversation a bit blown away by the different perspectives he had – he was drawing on a pretty wide range of ideas and background, and was spot-on in terms of what he was putting forward. I left the conversation inspired and really excited to work with the man.

Earlier tonight, I was chatting with a colleague and I was telling him about my first impressions. He said to me, “Sorry to burst your bubble, but…” The man had been flagged by previous EWB volunteers as “not serious”. I was really surprised by this! Certainly, people change over time, but to get two so radically different takes on a person struck me by surprise.

It got me to thinking about why this could be. As I understand it, the challenge the EWBers had had in the past was that the man didn’t seem to do a lot – as I interpreted it, he wasn’t particularly good at implementation. In the work context we’re in, implementation is where it’s at – government officers are responsible for implementation of projects, plans (their own, somehow, and donors’), and reporting. It’s bureaucratic, and a system that rewards conscientious ‘do-ers’. I still don’t have a read on this guy in terms of his capacity as a do-er, but let’s assume that that’s not a strength. My guess is that he has a wealth of other strengths – reflective, critical, even creative. Frankly, however, in the system in which we operate, these attributes are not going to be recognized as positive attributes, and if they’re coupled with a classic ‘reflective-type’s’ (a group I definitely fit in to!) difficulty with moving to action, then all that will be recognized is that that guy is ‘not serious’ about getting his work done.

Development is a massive industry in Ghana, and between government and NGOs, I’d guess that makes up a majority of professional employment opportunities in Tamale. The entire development machine is built around bureaucracy and implementation of plans developed elsewhere – a massive problem, not one I’ll dive into here – which create environment in which these conscientious do-ers will thrive, feel empowered, and love their jobs, while most others will really struggle.

Compare the performance of someone whose in ‘flow’, with internal and external motivating factors aligned, whose really hitting their stride and delivering to the best of their ability, to someone whose meeting the deadlines because they are supposed to and showing up from 9:30 to 5:00. I bet there’s an order of magnitude difference in the outputs of those two employees! One thing that I think is fantastic about the extremely specialized work-force we have in Canada is how many opportunities there are, for every kind of person. There’s the bureaucrats, the creative types, the tech geeks, the activists…. There’s a growing sense that the underperformance of employees is significantly (if not entirely) attributable to a mismatch in terms of the job description or the organizational culture – things external to that employee themselves. By creating so many niches, so many more people are seeking and finding that empowering work – through which they’ll deliver exceptional results. In development, it seems like the do-er mold is the predominant model.

It’s frustrating to me, to see so many people in really boring, disempowering jobs. It’s also really disappointing to see exceptional people underperform because of a system that’s just not good at creating space for their talents. And it makes me angry that this situation is so institutionalized by the approaches to development I’ve seen most often. The biggest argument against decentralization, against using government branches to deliver donor projects, is a lack of capacity, and yet you’re creating high-performance spaces for only the minority of staff that fit that one mold! Yes, planning takes some degree of technical expertise, but it also takes someone committed to thinking ahead, pondering possibility, and sitting down to think. People who would excel at that aren’t been given the space to dive into that job they’d love to do, and instead underperform in jobs that are not good fits for them. Yet, the only role given to these organizations is that of implementer (and micro-managed implementer at that). So, the organizational outputs are below what would be expected based on the inputs (in terms of money and people’s time), and the conclusion that’s drawn is that this is all due to poor capacity (so bring on the workshops).

I think we need to start giving people a chance to excel at the jobs that they’d love to excel at, and being intentional about this. The magic that comes out of a good ‘fit’ between a person and a position is so powerful, and until the development machine starts to try to capitalize on this, to capitalize on these people – which means giving more responsibility (giving up control) to the implementing partners – we’ll continue to see poor results, low-capacity institutions, and disappointing results.

What do you think? Does this resonate at all, especially in development outside of government bodies?

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Climbing in Shai Hills!

Sunday, I met up with some folks I met online – Anthony, Sharon, Joel, Anders, and Melanie – through the Ghana Climbing facebook page. After a bit of a delayed start, involving a lost cell-phone (not mine) and a delicious egg-and-bread breakfast (mine), we hit the road, heading to Elephant Rock in Shai Hills about 30km north of Accra.

Pulling into the spot, we drove past a gatehouse where you check in (they make you pay by the hour, since the crag is in a nature reserve. We negotiated with the Manager, but even so, pretty steep!), past the baboons, and into the savannah. The crag itself was a few kilometers in. It’s a massive piece of granite-ish rock, sticking right up from the ground, surrounded by trees so just the top pokes out. We pulled off the road and drove up through the grass, hopped out, and met up with a few other climbers who were already hard at it!

The prow of the rock has two routes side by side. The one on the right is a very tough-looking overhanging climb, and the one on the left is a beautifully featured climb up, through an indent up to a left-facing crack, then top-out on a tons of pointy features. It looked super fun, and one of the other climbers, Kim, was making it look tough but doable, so I harnessed up and got on it.

It was a bit of a rough start, which I’ll attribute to rust. After some pretty frantic moves up a corner into the indent, I finally got some solid feet under me and took a bit of a rest. At that point, it looked like some good holds on the left, up into the crack for a lay-back, and up. So reaching up, I went for a big-looking hold, and that is where things turned sour. The hold felt like grabbing a stone hedgehod, which while positive, made me hate life. It also was a bit over-hangy, with smears just not quite where you’d want them to be. I pulled up and over, went for the crack, and got up into an awkward position. Trying to reach up, I couldn’t get nearly enough out of the crack, and fell… over and over. At this point Kim told me it was a 5.11c, and I decided that was a terrible choice for a warm-up.

This is pretty much where I got stuck.

Giving up on that, I went over to join some other folks who were climbing up the left side of the rock. They were working on this practically blank, vertical wall, and from the “Putains! PUTAINS!!” it looked no fun. Getting on it, though, it turned out to be fantastic!! There are juuuuust enough holds, with some big jugs every few moves. The key is to get through some crimpy, balance-y climbing from one jug to the next. It stays that way, consistent and wonderful, to the last meter. Going from a great horizontal crimp, you have to move up a terrible, shallow, flaring crack, get your feet on the horizontal crimp, then somehow move further up from there. I never did figure it out – Damian, the guy before me, was able to Gastone his way up the crack, I think.

The rest of the day was spent sitting in the sun, climbing some wonderful stuff – more balance-y crimps – on the other side of the rock, and enjoying the views of the savannah. Shai Hills is beautiful. While just outside Accra, when you’re in the reserve you feel like it’s the middle of nowhere, and the shade makes it easy to hang out all day. After a few more climbs, and one ridiculously messy flail up a shallow laid-back corner crack, it was time to go. Heading back to Anthony’s place, we grabbed some Lebanese food, and I learned a bit more about the various boltings that are going on around the Greater Accra region. Joel and Melanie are hoping to explore a fantastic ridgeline in Nkawkaw (check it out – last photo!) that looks like it has ENORMOUS climbing potential. Today I’m sore and typing this kinda hurts, but I’m stoked for more climbing adventures in Ghana.

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Happy Thanksgiving!

This past weekend was the West Africa Retreat – a bi-annual event when all the EWB staff in Ghana and Burkina Faso come together. It was also Thanksgiving – not exactly a popular holiday in Ghana but a favorite of many of the APS, myself definitely included – so we decided we should go all out and prepare a feast.

The day before we headed out to Bolga, about 3 hours north of Tamale, I purchased a turkey from my neighbor. I picked the biggest one  could. Still tiny by Canadian standards, it was a decent size and most importantly would allow us to eat turkey on Thanksgiving!!!

There was never any question – this turkey was for consumption. As such, I was determined to leave it unnamed and anonymous. Unfortunately, somehow, the name ‘Arnold’ got into my brain, and before I knew it, I’d accidentally named dinner. So when people ask me why I named the female turkey Arnold, my excuse was I didn’t actually mean to name her at all, and I stand by that.

Here is Arnold in her box. This was shortly before she was loaded into the back of the tro. We were all relieved when she didn’t succumb to carbon monoxide poisoning.

The WAR was a really great time. It’s a weekend of reflection, personal development, and reconnecting with all the other wonderful people on the West Africa team and is a pretty huge boost to energy and motivation levels. This was a particular success, including some fantastic TED talks and a night of slam poetry. Friday and Saturday we devoted to these, on top of just reconnecting, and on Sunday, we cooked.

One of the professional fellows, Dom, recognized early on the challenge associated with feeding 30 people with one (pretty small) turkey. So, he went and found a huge sow, got it butchered, covered it in a glaze of pepper, coffee, tomato sauce, and I don’t know what else, lit a huge fire, and buried the pig in the coals for 7 hours. It was FANTASTIC.

We didn't eat the hoof.

Yeah…. That’s a hoof sticking out.

Cooking Arnold was pretty painless. Some of the staff at the Farmer’s Training Center – the beautiful location of our retreat – were kind enough to let us use their oven. They thought the whole production was hilarious. They also helped us out a ton!

Also, we rocked mustaches. +10 points.

Here’s me with Arnold, just before dinner!

The meal was absolutely delicious. I think I can say with confidence that it was the best I’ve had in Ghana. Thanks to the whole West Africa team for an amazing day!

Not shown: cranberry sauce. But we did have some! Kudos out to Boris.

We ate like kings. KINGS.

After the WAR, the G&RI team headed into Bolga town for three more days of very intense, very awesome meetings. We’re coming out with a clear sense of what we’re going to be exploring moving forward, and a wicked sense of possibility and unity. We’ve had a lot of transition these past few months, but things – the team – are really coming together, and I’m so, so excited about where we’re going from here.

On that note, I also plan on getting back on the blogging train from here forward. Please all, hold me accountable!

The careful observer might note that I am freaking SOAKED in this photo. As much as I love my new team, I hate my new team.

The new G&RI team!!!

Posted in Life in Ghana | Tagged , , , , , | 6 Comments